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Spectacles et manifestations en tout genre sont nombreux. Avec un budget pour la culture de presque un milliard d'euros, Berlin fait partie des leaders internationaux.
FC Union Berlin jouera en 2. Bundesliga la saison prochaine. Cet article concerne la capitale de l'Allemagne.
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Espaces de noms Article Discussion. It had occupied various locations including from till , a site in front of the Berlin City Palace , before moving to Potsdamer Platz in the latter year.
Among the many beer palaces around Potsdamer Platz were two in particular which contained an extensive range of rooms and halls covering a large area.
After closing in , it underwent a revamp before reopening in under the new name Bayernhof. Originally intended to be a concert venue until concerns were raised about increased traffic problems in the already congested streets, it was ruled that it should serve a gastronomic purpose only.
Altogether it could accommodate 4, guests at a time, 1, of these in its main hall alone. In the Vox-group had taken over the building and the following year commissioned its remodelling by Swiss architect Rudolf Otto Salvisberg — , and then erected two transmitting antennae.
Despite several upgrades between December and July , the nearby Hotel Esplanade's formidable bulk prevented the transmitter from functioning effectively and so in December it was superseded by a better sited new one, but Vox-Haus lived on as the home of Germany's first radio station , Radiostunde Berlin , founded in , renamed Funkstunde in March , but it moved to a new home in and closed in In addition, the former Millionaires' Quarter just to the west of Potsdamer Platz had become a much favoured location for other countries to site their embassies.
By the early s there were so many diplomats living and working in the area that it came to be redesignated the "Diplomatic Quarter".
By , 37 out of 52 embassies and legations in Berlin, and 28 out of 29 consulates, were situated here. Although a contraption at Stephansplatz in Hamburg is now thought to have predated them by two years, it has often been stated that the first traffic lights in Continental Europe were erected at Potsdamer Platz on 20 October , in an attempt to control the sheer volume of traffic passing through.
This traffic had grown to extraordinary levels. Even in , more than , people, 20, cars, horse-drawn vehicles and handcarts, plus many thousands of bicycles, passed through the platz daily.
By the s the number of cars had soared to 60, The trams added greatly to this. The first four lines had appeared in , rising to 13 by , all horse-drawn, but after electrification between and the number of lines had soared to 35 by and ultimately reached 40, carrying between them trams every hour, day and night.
Up to 11 policemen at a time had tried to control all this traffic, many of them standing on small wooden platforms positioned in key locations around the platz, but with varying success.
The traffic lights, again from Siemens, were mounted on a five-sided 8. A solitary policeman sat in a small cabin at the top of the tower and switched the lights around manually, until they were eventually automated in Yet some officers still remained on the ground in case people did not pay any attention to the lights.
The tower remained until c. The replica was moved again on 29 September , to the place where it stands today. The traffic problems that had blighted Potsdamer Platz for decades continued to be a big headache, despite the new lights, and these led to a strong desire to solve them once and for all.
By now Berlin was a major centre of innovation in many different fields including architecture. On the cards was an almost total redevelopment of the area.
One design submitted by Wagner himself comprised an array of gleaming new buildings arranged around a vast multi-level system of fly-overs and underpasses, with a huge glass-roofed circular car-park in the middle.
Unfortunately the worldwide Great Depression of the time, triggered by the Wall Street Crash of , meant that most of the plans remained on the drawing board.
Columbushaus was the result of a plan by the French retail company Les Galeries Lafayette , whose flagship store was the legendary Galeries Lafayette in Paris, to open a counterpart in Berlin, on the Grand Hotel Belle Vue's former site, but financial worries made them pull out.
Undaunted, the architect, Erich Mendelsohn — , erected vast advertising boards around the perimeter of the site, and the revenue generated by these enabled him to proceed with the development anyway.
Columbushaus was a ten-storey ultra-modern office building, years ahead of its time, containing Germany's first artificial ventilation system, and whose elegance and clean lines won it much praise.
However, despite a Woolworths store on its ground floor, a major travel company housed on the floor above, and a restaurant offering fine views over the city from the top floor, the economic situation of the time meant that it would not be followed by more buildings in that vein: Nevertheless, its exact position showed that the platz was starting to be opened out: Columbushaus was completed and opened in January , the same month that the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler — came to power.
Hitler had big plans for Berlin, to transform it into the Welthauptstadt World Capital Germania , to be realised by his architect friend Albert Speer — Under these plans the immediate vicinity of Potsdamer Platz would have got off fairly lightly, although the Potsdamer Bahnhof and the Anhalter Bahnhof a short distance away would have lost their function.
The new North-South Axis , the linchpin of the scheme, would have severed their approach tracks, leaving both termini stranded on the wrong side of it.
All trains arriving in Berlin would have run into either of two vast new stations located on the Ringbahn to the north and south of the centre respectively, to be known as Nordbahnhof North Station and Südbahnhof South Station , located at Wedding and Südkreuz.
In Speer's plan the former Anhalter Bahnhof was earmarked to become a public swimming pool; the intended fate of the Potsdamer Bahnhof has not been documented.
The eastern half of the former Millionaires' Quarter, including Stüler's Matthiaskirche, would have been totally eradicated.
New U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines were planned to run directly beneath almost the whole length of the axis, and the city's entire underground network reoriented to gravitate towards this new hub at least one tunnel section, around metres in length, was actually constructed and still exists today, buried some 20 metres beneath the Tiergarten, despite having never seen a train.
This was in addition to the S-Bahn North-South Link beneath Potsdamer Platz itself, which went forward to completion, opening in stages in Here Albert Speer erected Hitler's enormous new Reichskanzlei building, and yet even this was little more than a dry run for an even larger structure some distance further away.
Meanwhile, the Nazi influence was no less evident at Potsdamer Platz than anywhere else in Berlin. As well as swastika flags and propaganda everywhere, Nazi-affiliated concerns occupied a great many buildings in the area, especially Columbushaus, where they took over most of the upper floors.
As if to emphasise their presence, they used the building to advertise their own weekly publication: Sunday Newspaper , the N. Probably Potsdamer Platz's most prominent landmark in the mids, the sign first appears in photographs dated but was gone again by On an even darker note, those Nazi concerns included the Gestapo , who set up a secret prison in an upper part of the building, complete with interrogation and torture rooms.
Meanwhile, in another part of the building, the Information Office of the Olympic Games Organising Committee was housed. Here much of the planning of the Berlin Summer Olympic Games took place.
As was the case in most of central Berlin,  almost all of the buildings around Potsdamer Platz were turned to rubble by air raids and heavy artillery bombardment during the last years of World War II.
The three most destructive raids out of that the city suffered ,  occurred on 23 November , and 3 February and 26 February Once the bombing and shelling had largely ceased, the ground invasion began as Soviet forces stormed the centre of Berlin street by street, building by building, aiming to capture the Reich Chancellery and other key symbols of the Nazi government.
When the city was divided into sectors by the occupying Allies at the end of the war, the square found itself on the boundary between the American, British and Soviet sectors.
The lower floors of a few buildings were patched up enough to allow business of a sort to resume. The U-Bahn and S-Bahn were partially operational again from 2 June , fully from 16 November although repairs were not completed until May and trams by Part of the Haus Vaterland reopened in in a much simplified form.
The new East German state-owned retail business H. Out on the streets, even the flower-sellers, for whom the area had once been renowned, were doing brisk business again.
The area around Potsdamer Platz had also become a focus for black market trading. Since the American, British and Soviet Occupation Zones converged there, people theoretically only had to walk a few paces across sector boundaries to avoid the respective police officials.
Meanwhile, friction between the Western Allies and Soviets was steadily rising. The Soviets even took to marking out their border by stationing armed soldiers along it at intervals of a few metres, day and night, in all weathers.
Since there was not, as yet, a fixed marker, the borders were prone to abuse, which eventually resulted in August , in white lines in luminous paint appearing across roads and even through ruined buildings to try to deter the Soviets from making unauthorised incursions into the American and British zones.
These measures were only partially successful: Remembering the effective use of propaganda in the leadup to the second World War , the opposing camps later began berating one another with enormous signs displaying loud political slogans, facing each other across the border zone.
That on the western side was erected first, in direct response to the ban on sales of Western newspapers in East Berlin, and comprised an illuminated display board 30 m wide and 1.
Important messages were spelt out on the display board using up to 2, bulbs. The sign was switched on for the first time on 10 October , watched by a large crowd.
A month later, on 18 November, the Communist authorities in the east ordered its destruction using a catapult made from a compressed air hose loaded with pebbles and small pieces of metal.
However, the order was not executed and the sign lasted until , an eventual victim of its own high maintenance costs. Not to be outdone, East Berlin had meanwhile erected a sign of its own.
This was up and running by 25 November , less than seven weeks after its western counterpart, albeit for a much shorter time period.
It was demolished on 29 January What was not apparent from the western side however, was that East Berlin's construction boasted its own illuminated display board facing east, whose messages comprised the version of the news that the Communist authorities in the east wanted their citizens to believe.
More significantly, living and working conditions in East Germany were rapidly worsening under Communist rule. There are 55 known victims,  but other estimates state at least It was also claimed that 17 or 18 Soviet soldiers were executed for refusing to shoot demonstrating workers,  but this remains unconfirmed by post research.
Columbushaus, with its H. This time, they were not rehabilitated. As Cold War tensions rose still further during the s, restrictions were placed on travel between the Soviet sector East Berlin and the western sectors West Berlin.
For the second time in its history, the Potsdam Gate or what remained of it , was like a dividing line between two different worlds.
Lying on this invisible frontier, Potsdamer Platz was no longer an important destination for Berliners. Similarly, neither East Berlin nor West Berlin regarded their half as a priority area for redevelopment, seeking instead to distance themselves from the traditional heart of the city and develop two new centres for themselves, well away from the troubled border zone.
West Berlin inevitably chose the Kurfürstendamm and the area around the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church , while East Berlin built up Alexanderplatz and turned Frankfurter Allee which they renamed Stalinallee in , Karl-Marx-Allee in , into their own showpiece boulevard.
Potsdamer Platz, meanwhile, was more or less left to rot, as one by one the ruined buildings were cleared away, neither side having the will to repair or replace them.
On the western side things did improve later on with the development of the Cultural Forum , whose site roughly equates with the former Millionaires' Quarter.
With the construction of the Berlin Wall on 13 August , along the intracity frontier, Potsdamer Platz now found itself physically divided in two.
What had once been a busy intersection had become totally desolate. With the clearance of most of the remaining bomb-damaged buildings on both sides on the eastern side, this was done chiefly to give border guards a clear view of would-be escapees and an uninterrupted line of fire , little was left in an area of dozens of hectares.
Further demolitions occurred up until when the Haus Vaterland finally disappeared. A short distance away stood portions of the former Hotel Esplanade , including the Kaisersaal , used at various times as a much scaled-down hotel, cinema, nightclub and occasional film-set scenes from Cabaret were shot there.
Apart from these, no other buildings remained. Below ground, the U-Bahn section through Potsdamer Platz had closed entirely; although the S-Bahn line itself remained open, it suffered from a quirk of geography in that it briefly passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another.
Consequently, Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station became the most infamous of several Geisterbahnhofe ghost stations , through which trains ran without stopping, its previously bustling platforms now decrepit, sealed off from the outside world, and patrolled by armed guards.
During its 28 years in limbo, Potsdamer Platz exuded a strange fascination towards many people on the western side, especially tourists and also visiting politicians and heads of state.
An observation platform had been erected, primarily for military personnel and police but used increasingly by members of the public, so that they could gaze over the Wall at the wilderness beyond.
Meanwhile, among the many V. Charles, Prince of Wales 3 November , U. President Jimmy Carter 15 July , and U. Vice President later President George H.
Bush George Bush Senior 1 February Wings of Desire were filmed on the old, almost entirely void Potsdamer Platz before the Berlin Wall fell.
In one scene an old man named Homer, played by actor Curt Bois , searches in vain for Potsdamer Platz, but finds only rubble, weeds and the graffiti -covered Berlin Wall.
The movie thus gives a good impression of the surroundings at the time, which are completely unlike what can be seen today.
After the initial opening of the Berlin Wall on 9 November , Potsdamer Platz became one of the earliest locations where the Wall was "breached" to create a new border crossing between East and West Berlin.
The crossing began operating on 11 November , earlier than the iconic Brandenburg Gate crossing which opened more than a month later.
The crossing required the dismantling of both the inner and outer walls and the clearance of the death zone or no man's land between the two.
A temporary road, lined with barriers, was created across this zone and checkpoints were set up just inside East German territory.
Proper dismantling of the entire wall began on 15 May and all border checks were abolished on 1 July as East Germany joined West Germany in a currency union.
On 21 July , ex- Pink Floyd member Roger Waters staged a gigantic charity concert of his former band's rock extravaganza The Wall to commemorate the end of the division between East and West Germany.
It was preparations for this concert, rather than historical interest, that brought about the first detailed post-Cold War survey of the area with a view to determining what, if anything, was left of Hitler's bunker and any other underground installations.
Potsdamer Platz in , with the replica of Germany's first traffic lights. In the background stands the Beisheim Centre. On the left side is the Bahn-Tower and on the right side the Kollhoff-Tower.
Entrance hall one of two of the new underground regional train station Bahnhof Potsdamer Platz in It also gives access to the S-Bahn and the basement level food floor of the Arkaden shopping mall.
After , the square became the focus of attention again, as a large some 60 hectares , attractive location which had suddenly become available in the centre of a major European city.
It was widely seen as one of the hottest, most exciting building sites in Europe, and the subject of much debate amongst architects and planners.
If Berlin needed to re-establish itself on the world stage, then Potsdamer Platz was one of the key areas where the city had an opportunity to express itself.
More than just a building site, Potsdamer Platz was a statement of intent. In particular, due to its location straddling the erstwhile border between east and west, it was widely perceived as a "linking element," reconnecting the two halves of the city in a way that was symbolic as well as physical, helping to heal the historical wounds by providing an exciting new mecca attracting Berliners from both sides of the former divide.
Whether fairly or unfairly, a great deal was riding on the project, and expectations were high. The Berlin Senate city government organised a design competition for the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz and much of the surrounding area.
They had to fight off some stiff competition though, including a last-minute entry by British architect Richard Rogers.
During the building phase Potsdamer Platz was the largest building site in Europe. While the resulting development is impressive in its scale and confidence, the quality of its architecture has been praised and criticised in almost equal measure.
A major development bordering the west side of the former Potsdamer Bahnhof site, some of its 19 individual buildings were then erected by other architects, who submitted their own designs while maintaining Piano's key elements.
One of these was Richard Rogers, who played a part in the development after all his great British rival, Norman Foster , was putting the new dome on the Reichstag at about the same time.
The first spade at the start of the Daimler-Benz development was turned by the Mayor of Berlin , Eberhard Diepgen , on 11 October , and the finished complex was officially opened by the Federal President of Germany , Roman Herzog , on 2 October , in a glittering ceremony featuring large-scale celebrations and musical performances.
The 19 buildings include the offices of Daimler-Benz themselves actually their subsidiary debis , whose storey main tower rises to metres and is the tallest building in the new Potsdamer Platz development , also offices of the major British professional services company PricewaterhouseCoopers , Berliner Volksbank Germany's largest cooperative bank , and the remarkable storey, metre-high Potsdamer Platz No.
Unfortunately the Kollhoff Tower's facade needed major repairs due to water penetration and frost damage just seven years after completion, and was under scaffolding for many months.
Its storey, metre-high "Bahn Tower" is so named because it houses the corporate headquarters of Deutsche Bahn AG , the German state railway system.
Surviving parts of the former Hotel Esplanade have been incorporated into the north side of the Sony development, including the Kaisersaal which, in a complex and costly operation in March , was moved in one piece all 1, tonnes of it , some 75 metres from its former location, to the spot that it occupies today it even had to make two right-angled turns during the journey, while maintaining its own orientation.
This, like the Kaisersaal, had to be relocated, but here the room was dismantled into some pieces to be reassembled where it stands now.
A keen lover of classical music, he had helped to choose the site because of its close proximity to the orchestra's home in the Cultural Forum.
The fourth part is the Park Kolonnaden , a range of buildings running down the east side of the Potsdamer Bahnhof site, parallelling Daimler-Benz.
This complex occupies the site of the former Haus Vaterland, and its principal building, which for a few years was the headquarters of the large German trade union ver.
Other developments, more piecemeal in nature, have recreated the octagonal layout of neighbouring Leipziger Platz immediately to the east.
One of these is Kanada Haus , the new Embassy of Canada, on the platz's north-west diagonal. The whole project was subject to much controversy from the start; not everyone approves of how the district was commercialised and replanned.
The decision by the Berlin Senate to divide the land between just four investors - while numerous others had submitted bids - provoked scepticism.
The remarkably low price Daimler-Benz paid to secure their plot prompted questions from the Berlin Auditor -General's office and the European Union in Brussels , which resulted in Daimler-Benz being billed an additional sum.
There were wrangles over land-usage: Despite its undoubted success, this in turn led to what many saw as an "Americanisation" of the area, with even its private security force being kitted out in something resembling New York Police uniforms.
Further wrangles effectively brought work on the north side of Leipziger Platz to a complete stop for several years; even now there are some "fake facades" where completed new buildings should be, while a long-running dispute over who owned the Wertheim department store site or had claims to the revenue from its sale by the government , left another large gap in the central Berlin cityscape that is only now finally being redeveloped.
However, this development brought about the demise after several stays of execution , of the legendary Tresor nightclub and centre for techno music.
In spite of the controversy, the rebuilt Potsdamer Platz now attracts around 70, visitors a day, rising to , at weekends, and some critics have been surprised by the success of the new quarter.
Fears that the streets would be dead after 6 pm have proven false. At almost any time of the day, the place is alive with people. It is a particularly popular attraction for visitors: It is also very popular with film fans, as it has nearly 30 screens in three cinemas , including an IMAX cinema and an English-speaking cinema, plus a film academy and a film museum.
There is also a 1,seater theatre, the "Theater am Potsdamer Platz," which doubles up as another cinema the "Berlinale Palast" for two weeks during the Berlin International Film Festival and serves as the principal venue of the festival.
This venue sits above a popular night-spot: After major refurbishment, the S-Bahn line and station reopened on 1 March , followed by the U-Bahn on 13 November An additional station on the U-Bahn, called Mendelssohn-Bartholdy-Park , was opened immediately north of the Landwehrkanal on 1 October A new U-Bahn station has also been built at Potsdamer Platz itself, although a decision is still pending on whether to proceed with completion of the line passing through it; in the meantime the station area serves as an impromptu art gallery and exhibition space.
A new underground main-line station or Regionalbahnhof Bahnhof Potsdamer Platz has also been constructed, opened on 26 July There are also plans to reintroduce trams to Potsdamer Platz.
In addition, many bus routes pass through the platz, while for people with their own cars there are some 5, parking spaces, 3, of which are underground.
The annual Berlin Marathon , which takes place in the last weekend of September, was first held in but due to the division of the city was confined to West Berlin up till and including Beginning in the course was re-routed into part of East Berlin, and in a further adjustment meant that the course has since run through Potsdamer Platz.
Typically the leaders will pass through the platz about ten minutes before they cross the finish line. Another annual tradition that began in West Berlin in and was re-routed into the east via Potsdamer Platz following German reunification is the Weihnachtszug Christmas train.
It now does a regular two-hour round trip at weekends in the run-up to Christmas for families with children, starting and finishing at the Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station.
It did not run in or due to equipment problems, but is expected to be operational again in